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الخطة الدراسية - College of Medicine

الخطة الدراسية


Institution: Najran university                       
College/Department: College of Medicine
A. Course Identification and General Information
1.  Course title and code:  Principles of epidemiology, biostatistics and research 
      Methods/ EPB-483
2.  Credit hours: 5 (3+2)
3. Program: Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
4.   Name of faculty member responsible for the course:
Dr. Moawia Ali Hassan
5.  Level/year: level 8 /4th year
6. Pre-requisites: According to the bylaws.
 7. Co-requisites: None
8. Location: Main campus
1.   Summary of the main learning outcomes for students enrolled in the course:
By the end of this course the students are expected to:
1)      Describe the concepts and functions of the disciplined concerned with data management i.e. epidemiology, biostatistics and research skills.
1)      Contribute to the community health development using the principles of epidemiology, biostatistics and research skills.
2)      Assess and grapple with known or novel theories, problems and principles in medical and health sciences.
3)      Critically understand and analyze literature relevant to health phenomena.
4)      Plan, implement and assess research projects in health problems.
5)      Develop the skills needed in communication of research findings.
6)      Develop leadership criteria, team-work sprit and ethical attitudes with community-orientation approach in learning.
7)      To contribute to the development of laboratory sciences
2.  Course development plan:
1)      Continuous updating of the information, knowledge and skills included in the block through the continuous search for new knowledge and skills available in recent publications (books, researches, internet and others).
2)      Continuous improvements in teaching methods to encourage the students to participate effectively in their various academic activities.
3)      Continuous evaluation of the block content, student level and establish plans for development accordingly.
B Objectives
C. Course Description
Epidemiology, biostatistics and research skills are considered as the basic subjects of family and community health. They are also essential prerequisites for the understanding of other disciplines; fostering the development of scientific inquiry skills needed in future health workers. Additionally, they have a common task for advancement of human knowledge in health and medical sciences i.e. data management. Hence, it goes without saying that mastering this; health workers will improve their decision-making process. The current course is an attempt to integrate the above mentioned subjects into one block. Not only this, but also the same approach will be adopted during teaching and learning activities and assessment. This is of course will maximize knowledge retention, problem solving skills and application of knowledge. The course is designed to provide an understanding of data management to achieve the following:
-         Adopting community-oriented education as a main strategy in learning; to expose the student to the concepts and principles that lie within the context of this block.
-        Acquisition of and development of problem solving skills and competencies that are required to assess community health needs and problems to decide appropriate solutions. Then the students are expected to learn with the aim of being capable to deal effectively with community health problems.
-        Understanding of the scientific inquiry related to the phenomena of health and disease in the community is of crucial importance to health professionals.
-        Provision of the necessary decision-making skills needed that are important to the career of every health worker.
-        Planning a small scale research project to ensure the understanding of the course material.
1 Topics to be Covered
List of Topics No of
Week due
Contact hours
1)      The concept of health and disease:
-     Definitions
-     Epidemiological triad
-     Natural history of disease
-     Dynamics of transmission
2)      Introduction to the scientific method
3)      Health information system
4)      Data variability in health
5)      Scales of measurement
6)      Sources of information:
-     Publications
-     Net search
7)      Bias & systematic error
8)      Samples & populations:
-  Sampling techniques
-  Sample size
9)   Quantitative data analysis:
-     The mean
-     The mode
-     The median
-     Measures of dispersion
10) Qualitative data analysis:
-     The rates, ratio, proportion and percent
-     Incidence and prevalence
11) Test of hypothesis:
- The normal curve
- Chi square test
- t-student test
14) The concept of endemicity
15) Epidemiology and prevention
16) Infectious disease epidemiology
17) Screening concept
18) Epidemiological studies
19) Introduction to research methods
20) Selection & statement of the problem
21) How to write objectives
22) How to write a literature review
23) Methods of data collection
24) The questionnaire
25) Data presentation
26) The proposal format
27) The work plan, investigators & budget
28) How to write and illustrate research report
29) How to write and illustrate scientific papers
30) Medical ethics (truthfulness, professionalism, safety,trust,consent, accuracy,integrity,  collaboration, anonymityand objectivity)
31) Research project
72 (0+72)
2 Course components (total contact hours per semester):
Field work/Internship
3. Additional private study/learning hours expected for students per week. 10-15
4. Development of Learning Outcomes in Domains of Learning
a. Knowledge
(i) Description of the knowledge to be acquired
By the end of this course, the student should be able to:
1)      Define health information system.
2)      Describe requirements and uses of health information system.
3)      Define the terms data, variable, information and data management.
4)      Define the concepts of research, health statistics and epidemiology.
5)      Describe the relation between research, statistics and epidemiology.
6)      Recognize the importance and functions of data management.
7)      Identify and define the components of the health information system
8)      Describe requirements and uses of health information system.
9)      Describe the components of descriptive statistics.
10)     Define measures of central tendency and dispersion.
11)     Draw the main functions of descriptive statistics.
12)     Define the concepts of probability, sample, and population.
13)     Describe the main sampling techniques and be able to choose the appropriate design for their proposed researches.
14)     Describe the main types and designs for data management.
15)     Describe the basic principles and concepts of Epidemiology
16)     Identify the uses and applications of epidemiology
17)     Describe the natural history of disease and principles of disease causation
18)     Describe the approach to define and measure the occurrence of health related states in the populations
19)     Define and identify the modifiable environmental factors that influence the application of epidemiological tools to prevent disease and promote health
20)     Define what is meant by the effectiveness and efficiency of health care
21)     Describe the common causes of disease and disability of health in the community
22)     Describe the different types of epidemiological studies
23)     Define and describe the concept of screening
24)     Describe the components of infectious disease process and the mechanisms of transmission of infections
25)     Describe communicable disease and how to prevent and control them.
26)     Describe the concept  of prevention and control in epidemiology
27)     Describe the qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis both in deductive and inductive situations.
28)     Identify what is a researchable problem in health and medical sciences.
29)     Define and identify the research variables implied the objectives.
30)     Define and correlate between samples and population. 
31)     Describe the different sampling techniques and be able to choose the appropriate one for their research. 
32)     Define the concepts proposal, plan and protocol.
33)     Describe the functions of the proposal.
34)     Identify the components of a research proposal.
35)     Describe the components of standard report.
(ii) Teaching strategies to be used to develop that knowledge
1)         Lectures.
2)         Seminars and tutorials.
 (iii) Methods of assessment of knowledge acquired
1)                   Continuous assessment.
2)                   End of course examination.
b. Cognitive Skills
(i) Description of the cognitive skills to be acquired
By the end of this course, the student should be able to:
1)       Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative data.
2)         Identify and use the basic principles and concepts of epidemiology
3)         Explain  the cycle of the natural history of disease and principles of disease causation
4)         Analyze  the approach to define and measure the occurrence of health related states in the populations
5)         Evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of health care
6)         Utilize the concept of screening to identify hidden health problems in the community
8)         Discuss the components of infectious disease process and the mechanisms of transmission of infections
9)         Determine and estimate adequate and valid sample size.
11)        Plan and select an appropriate, valid and reliable approach and design suitable for the different health and health-related problems.
12)        Differentiate between the different tests of hypothesis and use the suitable test for reaching a conclusion.
13)        Apply statistical and epidemiological tools to test hypotheses to identify underlying causes and risk factors.
14)        Review and summarize critically the pertinent literature to construct a conceptual frame work for the researched problem.
15)        Select and prioritize researchable problems in health and medical sciences.
16)        Set sound, logical and coherent objectives in terms of broad general objective related directly to the selected problem and smart specific objectives for the variables affecting the problem.
17)        Analyze and state properly the selected problem in terms of core problem [dependant variable/s] and related risk factors [independent variable/s].
18)        Develop and design both qualitative and quantitative methods and tools for data collection that are valid and reliable.
19)        Formulate a coherent and feasible work plan regarding monitoring, managing and administering research projects.
20)        Develop and outline in details a proposal for submission.
21)        Estimate reasonable budget for the proposed research.
22)        Design an appropriate presentation tool for the different data types.
(ii) Teaching strategies to be used to develop these cognitive skills
1)            Interactive lectures.
2)            Seminars and tutorial that include brain storming problem solving questions.
(iii) Methods of assessment of students cognitive skills
1)            Continuous assessment.
2)            End of course examination.
c. Interpersonal Skills and Responsibility
(i) Description of the interpersonal skills and capacity to carry responsibility
By the end of this course, the student should be able to:
1)            Act as efficient team members.
2)            Perform self directed learning.
3)            Participate in class discussion.
4)            Present a talk to their colleagues in the student seminars.
5)            Behave ethically conduct in the lecture and practical classes with the staff, colleagues and environment like instruments, benches, and laboratory material.
 (ii) Teaching strategies to be used to develop these skills and abilities
1)                Seminars.
2)                Tutorials
3)                Group assignments
(iii) Methods of assessment of students interpersonal skills and capacity to carry
1)      Continuous assessment.
d. Communication, Information Technology and Numerical Skills
(i) Description of the skills to be developed in this domain.
By the end of this course, the student should be able to:
1)         Utilize efficiently the different knowledge resources including the library and websites.
2)         Use computers, projectors and build up power point presentation.
3)         Manipulate textual and numerical results mathematically and statistically.
(ii) Teaching strategies to be used to develop these skills
1)         Group seminars.
2)         Assignments.
(iii) Methods of assessment of students numerical and communication skills
1)      Continuous assessment.
e. Psychomotor Skills (if applicable)
(i) Description of the psychomotor skills to be developed
1)      Calculate measures of central tendency and dispersion
2)       Use  the different types of epidemiological studies in measuring disease magnitude, identifying disease risk factors and participate in health care management
3)      Write a comprehensive report to communicate the findings of the proposed research.
4)      Apply qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis both in deductive and inductive situations.
(ii) Teaching strategies to be used to develop these skills
1)         Practical classes.
2)         Assignments
(iii) Methods of assessment of students psychomotor skills
1)      Continuous assessment.
2)      End of course examination.
5. Schedule of Assessment Tasks for Students During the Semester
Assessment task
Week due
Proportion of Final Assessment
Research assignment1
Research assignment2
End course exam (MCQs 25%
Problems and SSEQs (25 %)
Total Marks
D. Student Support
Staff availability for individual student consultations and academic advice:
1)      Allocation of office hours by the department
2)      Academic supervision
3)      Academic surveillance.
E. Learning Resources
1. Required Text(s):
2- Recommended Books and Reference Material (Journals, Reports, etc):
1)   Health systems research training series. World Health Organization publications, 1992; volume 2 part 1 and 2 designing and conducting HSR projects.
2)   Badri A, Burchinal I. Methods for social research in developing countries. Omdruman, AUW 1995.
3)   Stephen P, Shane A. Introduction to research in health sciences, 3rdeds, Church, Livingstone, 1995.
4)   Health research methodology. A guide for training on research skills Manila, WHO, WPRO, 1992.
5)   Research methodology manual. WHO, FMOH; Sudan, Khartoum, 1999.
6)   Lwanga SK, Cho YT. Teaching health statistics. Geneva, WHO, 1985.
7)   Lawanga SK, Lemeshow S. Sample size determination in health studies: a practical manual. 1991, WHO publications.
8)    Park P. Park’s textbook of preventive and social medicine, 14Th, edition. India, M/S Bandrsida; Bharot, 1995.
9)    Last JM.  Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3rd edition. New York, Oxford University Press, 1995.
3-.Electronic Materials, Web Sites etc:
1)      www.ICMJE.org
2)      www.WAME.org
3)      pdf version.  
F. Facilities Required
1.  Accommodation:
1)       Lecture room suitable for 25 students.
2)      Laboratory (dissection room-DR, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology and clinical skills) suitable for 25 students.
3)      Teaching hospital for bedside teaching.
2. Computing resources:
          Computers, multimedia in lecture room, PBL room and laboratories.
3. Other resources:
       Library supplied with reference text books, electronic resources.
 Course Evaluation and Improvement Processes
1     Strategies for Obtaining Student Feedback on Effectiveness of Teaching:
1)         Continuously throughout the block by direct interviewing of the students.
2)         End of block questionnaire
2      Other Strategies for Evaluation of Teaching :
1)         Feedback from colleagues.
2)         Class observation by supervisors.
3  Processes for Improvement of Teaching:
1)   Continuous updating of course contents.
2)Regular meetings where problems are discussed and recommendations made.
3)Workshops on teaching methods.
4)Review of recommended teaching strategies.
4. Processes for Verifying Standards of Student Achievement:
1)         Arrange with another institution to have common test items included in an      exam and compare marks given.
2)         Invitation of an external examiner on regular bases.
5  Action planning for improvement:
   There will be an evaluation at the end of the block to assess the course execution, outcome and feedback from different sources to arrive at an appropriate modifications needed if any.